Oral bacterial biofilm contains an estimated 700 species including oral as well as respiratory pathogens. Poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease provide and inflammatory condition and biofilm environment conducive to the proliferation of respiratory pathogens. The risk of nosocomial pneumonia may be increased in hospitalized patients as the biofilm provides a reservoir for pathogenic species. Clinical Implications: Oral hygiene for hospitalized, intubated patients should be considered not only for oral health, but also to prevent aspiration of bacteria into the lungs.
Travis Graham-Wyatt, DDS
March 26, 2013
Oral contraceptive use is linked to increased gingival inflammation due to an increase in the concentration of sex hormones in the gingival tissues. Newer formulations of oral contraceptives contain lower levels of hormones; however the number of years taking the drug may influence gingival conditions.